Общество физиологов растений России
11 Май, 2021

Новости науки и практики // Май 2021

Новости науки и практики // Май 2021

A biosensor for the direct visualization of auxin

Herud-Sikimić et al. report a genetically encoded biosensor for the quantitative in vivo visualization of auxin distribution. The sensor is based on the Escherichia coli tryptophan repressor, the binding pocket of which is engineered to be specific to auxin.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03425-2

 

How plants find their symbiotic partners

A team led by the cell biologist Prof. Dr. Thomas Ott from the University of Freiburg's Faculty of Biology has now detected a factor in the root cells that the plants need for the initial contact with these so-called root-associated bacteria, which live in the soil. They discovered a protein found only in legumes called symbiotic formin 1 (SYFO1) and demonstrated the essential role it plays in symbiosis.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-05/uof-hpf050321.php

 

Oceans' microscopic plants -- diatoms -- capture carbon dioxide via biophysical pathways

A new study shows that diatoms predominantly use one pathway to concentrate CO2 at the vicinity of carbon fixing enzyme and that this continues to operate even at higher CO2 concentrations.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-05/f-omp042821.php

 

Where Siberian orchids thrive: New hotspot of orchids discovered near Novosibirsk

In Siberia, near Novosibirsk, scientists discovered a unique orchid hotspot, where they found 14 species, some of which had never been registered before in this territory. There, researchers found one of the largest populations of large-flowered lady's-slipper (Cypripedium macranthos) in Northern Eurasia, with up to 5,000 individual plants.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210408131436.htm

 

A pioneering study: Plant roots act like a drill

Plant roots screw themselves into the ground - just like a drill penetrating a wall.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/tu-aps042821.php

 

Study reports novel role of enzyme in plant immunity and defense gene expression

Some E1, E2 and E3-ligase proteins have been identified as playing a role in plant susceptibility or resistance to pathogen invasion. SALT- AND DROUGHT-INDUCED RING FINGER1 (SDIR1) is an E3-ligase that degrades regulators of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to drought stress.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/aps-srn042321.php

 

Flowering rooted in embryonic gene-regulation

Researchers determine that gene-regulatory mechanisms at an early embryonic stage govern the flowering behavior of Arabidopsis later in development.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/iiom-fri042121.php

 

Shedding light on the long and the short of plant growth

New research addressing the architecture and growth habit of plants has provided an answer to question and may assist in the development of better performing crops. This study by John Innes Centre researchers reveals the genes that control changes in growth habit.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/jic-041621.php

 

Drought-induced mortality of conifers

According to the findings, the trees' hydraulic system can collapse completely within a very short time during the drought. Until now, it was assumed that this happens gradually as soon as the water supply from the soil is interrupted and the internal water reservoir are empty. The decisive factor here is that the dehydration of the plant tissue does not seem to be a continuous process, but rather takes place abruptly after a species-specific threshold value has been exceeded. The spruce trees were unable to recover from this.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/uow-dmo041521.php

 

To nodulate or not? Uncovering how nitrate regulates gene expression in legumes

Researchers from the University of Tsukuba find that nitrate-induced control of root nodule formation results from varying DNA-binding properties of specific proteins that control gene expression.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/uot-tno040921.php

 

An artful study of cellular development in leaves

In a new study researchers used single-cell RNA sequencing technologies to track genetic activity in nearly 20,000 cells as they formed the surface and inner parts of an Arabidopsis leaf. Through this highly detailed technique, the researchers captured transient and rare cell states and found a surprising abundance of ambiguity in how cells traversed various identities, particularly early on within the stem cell population.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/su-aas040521.php

 

The tale of extensins: do these proteins protect plant roots against pathogens?

Scientists share viewpoints on the role of glycoproteins in cell wall network.

https://www.botany.one/2021/04/the-tale-of-extensins-do-these-proteins-protect-plant-roots-against-pathogens

 

Above- and below-ground factors determine the effect of added nitrogen

Both light capture and phosphorous acquisition affected the success of nitrogen-enriched plants.

https://www.botany.one/2021/04/above-and-below-ground-factors-determine-effect-of-added-nitrogen

 

Rare pictures of Rare-Earth Elements in live hyper-accumulating fern roots and shoots: silicon might play a role in detoxification

New X-raying method reveals how a fern accumulates rare-earth elements in its tissues.

https://www.botany.one/2021/03/rare-pictures-of-rare-earth-elements-in-live-hyper-accumulating-fern-roots-and-shoots-silicon-might-play-a-role-in-detoxification/

 

How is a molecular machine assembled?

Photosystem II (PS II) is of fundamental importance for life, as it is able to catalyse the splitting of water. The oxygen released in this reaction allows us to breathe. In addition, PS II converts light energy in such a way that atmospheric CO2 can be used to synthesise organic molecules. PS II thus represents the molecular beginning of all food chains. Its structure and function have already been researched in detail, but little has been known so far about the molecular processes that lead to the orderly assembly of the complex.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/rb-hia042221.php

 

Bacteria help plants grow better

A current study by scientists sheds light on an unusual interdependence: Maize can attract special soil bacteria that, in turn, help the plants to grow better. In the long term, the results could be used to breed new varieties that use less fertilizer and therefore have less impact on the environment.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210408152258.htm

 

Two chemically distinct root lignin barriers control solute and water balance

Thе activation of endodermal sensing mechanism triggers a transcriptional reprogramming strongly inducing the phenylpropanoid pathway and immune signaling. This leads to deposition of compensatory lignin that is chemically distinct from Casparian strip lignin. We also report that a complete loss of endodermal lignification drastically impacts mineral nutrients homeostasis and plant growth.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-22550-0

 

Natural allelic variation of FRO2 modulates Arabidopsis root growth under iron deficiency

Using natural variation of a geographically restricted panel of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, scientists identify allelic variation at the FRO2 locus associated with root length under iron deficiency. The non-coding sequence variation at the FRO2 locus leads to variation of FRO2 transcript levels, as well as ferric chelate reductase activity, and is causal for a portion of the observed root length variation.

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15603

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