Новости науки и практики // Апрель 2017
Nitrogen foraging ability of plants relies on mobile shoot-root hormone signal
Research at Nagoya University uncovers molecular shoot-to-root signal in nitrogen-starved plants, revealing role for mobile plant hormone
Outwitting climate change with a plant 'dimmer'?
Molecular mechanism responsible for blooming in spring identified
Botany: A stem's 'sense of self' contributes to shape. Mathematical framework explains diverse plant stem forms
It is well known that as plants grow, their stems and shoots respond to outside signals like light and gravity. But if plants all have similar stimuli, why are there so many different plant shapes? Using simple mathematical ideas, researchers have constructed a framework that explains and quantifies the different shapes of plant stems.
Study IDs link between sugar signaling and regulation of oil production in plants
Findings point to new biochemical strategies for increasing oil yield from crops grown to produce biofuels and biomaterials.
How plants can tell friend from foe
RNAs without nucleotide 'tail' broken down by immune system.
Stunning Images of a California Superbloom
Yellow flowers paint a bright contrast against the bright blue sky in Anza Borrego State Park in 2017. The area experienced a superbloom thanks to a wet winter.
Better barcoding: New library of DNA sequences improves plant identification
Researchers at Emory University have developed a new database of genetic information that can be used with the latest DNA sequencing technologies to improve the accuracy of plant identification.
The recipe for especially efficient stomata
Scientists have identified a key element underlying the superior function of stomata - or tiny, gas-exchanging pores - in grasses, where stomata function more efficiently than they do in other plant types.
New plant research leads to discovery of a gene that increases seed yield in maize
Researchers from VIB-UGent have discovered a gene that significantly increases plant growth and seed yield in maize.
Surprise: Transport proteins evolved long before their compounds emerged
The scientists investigated how transport proteins evolved along with the emergence of new defense compounds. The research goal was to understand how transport proteins acquire the ability to move new toxic compounds - and what comes first in the evolution: the transport protein's ability to move a defense compound or the compound?
New rice strain could help farmers predetermine harvest time
A new strain of rice that flowers within a certain period of time after being sprayed with commercial chemicals commonly used to protect rice from fungal diseases is now available, say scientists. This new strain could one day allow rice farmers to dictate the timing of their harvest regardless of weather, temperature and other conditions that currently affect cultivation.
Cell biology: The quickest route to the tip for protein transport
According to a new theoretical model, in cell protrusions and cargo-transporting motor proteins often get in each other's way. The upshot is that freely diffusing proteins reach the leading edge faster.
Membrane lipids hop in and out of rafts in the blink of an eye
New fluorescent lipids demonstrate how specialized regions in the cell membrane function, explain researchers in a new report.
'Tree-on-a-chip' passively pumps water for days
Engineers have created a 'tree-on-a-chip' -- a microfluidic pump inspired by the way trees and plants circulate nutrients. The chip pumps water for days, at constant rates that could power small robots.
New plant research solves a colorful mystery
New research has solved a long-standing mystery by deducing how and why strange yet colorful structures called 'anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions' occur in some plants.
Systemic nutrient signalling: On the road for nitrate
Whole plant nutrient signalling involves bidirectional exchange of signal molecules between roots and shoots. For nitrogen uptake, in addition to the root-to-shoot delivery of nitrogen-deprivation information, a shoot-to-root path is now defined.
Antiviral innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms
This review article summarises the molecular mechanisms of the antiviral immune system in plants and reports the latest breakthroughs relating to plant defence against viruses. Particular attention is given to the immune receptors and transduction pathways in antiviral innate immunity that are involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity, effector-triggered immunity and the translational control branch of the NIK1-mediated antiviral signalling, as well as to the adaptive RNA silencing mechanism.
Drought resistance: Spraying for yield
Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is an essential signalling molecule in plants. A novel chemical intervention strategy to increase in plantaT6P levels has now been presented, with remarkable effects on plant yield and drought tolerance.
Comparison of winter and summer dormancy in herbaceous perennial species
Dormancy in higher plants is an adaptive response enabling plant survival during the harshest seasons and has been more explored in woody species than in herbaceous species. Nevertheless, winter and summer shoot meristem dormancy are adaptive strategies that could play a major role in enhancing seasonal stress tolerance and resilience of widespread herbaceous plant communities.
Why do the world’s largest trees have some of the smallest leaves?
Conifers are the world’s tallest, widest, and oldest trees. But they have some of the smallest leaves in the plant kingdom, with most never growing beyond 6 centimeters. To find out why, scientists mathematically modeled how liquid nutrients move through the needlelike leaves of conifers, including redwoods and cedars.
In Photos: Beautiful Butterflies of the American Deserts
By mid-February in the three great hot and dry deserts of the American West, wildflowers turn stark desert landscapes into a sea of color. Whether it is in the low plains of Death Valley or among the saguaro forests of the Sonoran Desert, wildflowers become for a short time the most common of plants, while also signaling the arrival of another spring.
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