Общество физиологов растений России
10 Январь, 2017

Новости науки и практики // Январь 2017

Новости науки и практики // Январь 2017

Space cucumbers reveal secrets of plant survival
Researchers have examined cucumber seedlings germinated under the very weak gravity - or microgravity - conditions of the International Space Station.

An amino acid controls plants' breath
Group leader Dr. June M. KWAK and his colleagues at the Center for Plant Aging Research, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), identified a novel calcium channel and found out how it regulates stomatal closure. Published in Cell Reports, this discovery helps to clarify how plants maintain and adjust an adequate intracellular calcium level for their growth and breathing.

To bloom or not to bloom: That is the question
IBS plant scientists discover a new epigenetic mechanism that contributes to plants' decision to flower.

Root transcriptome of two contrasting indica rice cultivars uncovers regulators of root development and physiological responses
Using comparative root transcriptome analysis of these cultivars, we identified genes related to root development and different physiological responses like abiotic stress responses, hormone signaling, and nutrient acquisition or transport.

Exploring how rice could survive salt stress
KAUST researchers have studied the early responses of rice plants to moderately saline conditions and for the first time pinpointed new salt tolerance genetic loci1. The results could support breeding programs to improve global rice productivity.

Highly efficient genome engineering in flowering plants
Plant biologists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a genome editing method to knockout target genes in a model plant with high efficiency. The team reports a new CRISPR/Cas9 vector for the model plant that can strongly induce inheritable mutations. This method is expected to become a powerful molecular tool for genome engineering in various plant species.

Wise plant analysis
A new method of plant analysis, developed at the Weizmann Institute of Science, has identified healthful antioxidants in tomato skins. In fact, as reported recently in Nature Communications, the new method reveals that biologically active plant substances typically associated with particular plant species - including those providing health benefits - are much more prevalent across the plant kingdom than was previously thought.

Tomato plant's male reproduction organs shrivel under high temperatures
The male reproduction organs of tomato plants cannot cope with high temperatures. When temperatures rise above 32 degrees Celsius for several consecutive days, their appearance changes and they produce less and less fertile pollen, leading to lower agricultural yields.

Plant scientists propose new classification system for European vegetation
Experts have presented a new classification system for vegetation in Europe that aims to standardize classifications across the continent and aid the European Union Nature Information System, which brings together data for nature resource management and conservation, land planning, education, and environmental policy implementation.

Flowers use physics to attract pollinators
A new review indicates that flowers may be able to manipulate the laws of physics, by playing with light, using mechanical tricks, and harnessing electrostatic forces to attract pollinators.

How hormones regulate floral architecture in barley
A new study finds that regulation of hormone levels during development is crucial for determining the arrangement of flowers on a barley inflorescence, opening new doors for increasing grain yield.

New study of water-saving plants advances efforts to develop drought-resistant crops
ORNL scientists are studying the unique metabolic mechanisms that allow CAM plants to conserve water, with the goal of introducing water-saving traits into bioenergy and food crops. The results of the team's latest study, which focuses on agave, are published in Nature Plants.

Flower forms in the primrose: Biologists unlock 51.7-million-year-old genetic secret to landmark Darwin theory
Scientists have identified the cluster of genes responsible for reproductive traits in the common primrose flower (Primula vulgaris), first noted as important by Charles Darwin more than 150 years ago. Darwin hypothesized that some plant species with two distinct forms of flower, where male and female reproductive organs were of differing lengths, had evolved that way to promote out-crossing by insect pollinators.

Zn uptake behavior of rice genotypes and its implication on grain Zn biofortification
Here we examined soil Zn availability and Zn uptake pathways as affected by genotype (high-grain Zn varieties IR69428 and IR68144), Zn fertilization and water management in two pot experiments. Results showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) between genotypes and Zn fertilization on DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable soil Zn from early tillering to flowering.

Antiproliferative activities of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Lycoris radiata targeting DNA topoisomerase I
In this study, a UF-HPLC-MS method was developed to screen Top I inhibitors from crude alkaloids in Lycoris radiata. 11 alkaloids showed potential inhibitory activity, 10 of which were identified according to their MS/MS spectra and fragmentation pathways.

Hydrogen sulfide - cysteine cycle system enhances cadmium tolerance through alleviating cadmium-induced oxidative stress and ion toxicity in Arabidopsis roots
This paper is the first to describe the role of the H2S and Cys cycle system in Cd2+ stress and to explore the relevant and specificity mechanisms of H2S and Cys in mediating Cd2+ stress.

Стволовым клеткам нужны правильные теломеры
В статье в NatureStructural and MolecularBiology говорится, что чрезмерно удлинившимся теломерам по ряду структурных причин трудно сформировать у себя на конце ДНК-«завиток» – предохранительную петлю. Чтобы стволовая клетка была здорова, не страдала от мутаций и спокойно делилась, теломеры в её хромосомах должны быть определённой правильной длины. Чтобы они не становились слишком короткими, есть теломераза, а чтобы они не становились слишком длинными, есть два специальных белка, XRCC3 и Nbs1, которые укорачивают теломеры до нужного размера.

Scientists develop novel assay to decode functional elements of genome
Scientists introduce method to identify regulatory sequences in RNA by analyzing their regulatory function in a massive parallel reporter assay during embryogenesis. The method is called RESA (RNA Element Selection Assay).

The transition from scalariform-to-simple vessel perforation plates
Flowering plants with simple vessel perforations have evolved from species bearing scalariform perforations but there is a scarcity of integrative studies explaining why these transitions in wood evolution have happened.

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