Общество физиологов растений России
15 октября, 2023

Новости науки и практики // Октябрь 2023

Новости науки и практики // Октябрь 2023

A new family of proteins is required for tethering of Casparian strip membrane domain and nutrient homoeostasis in rice
A newly identified family of proteins, GAPLESS, is found to mediate the attachment of the plasma membrane to the Casparian strip in rice, which is key to maintaining nutrient balance in multicellular organisms. The proteins are localised in the Casparian strip of root endodermal cells, loss of which disrupts nutrient homeostasis.



Unzipping mRNA rallies plant cells to fight infection

Living things from plants to humans must constantly adjust the chemical soup of proteins -- the workhorse molecules of life -- inside their cells to adapt to stress or changing conditions. Now, researchers have identified a previously unknown molecular mechanism that helps explain how they do it. A team now reveals hairpin-like structures of mRNA that, by zipping and unzipping, help cells change the mix of proteins they produce when under stress.



Trichomes in the megadiverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae): a revised classification, identification parameters and standardized terminology
Pereira Pinto-Silva et al. focus on trichomes in Croton, a megadiverse genus (c. 1200 spp.) of Euphorbiaceae, in which these structures are ubiquitous and exhibit significant variation in form, location on the plant body, density and function. Owing to their functional and taxonomic relevance and the current need for further standardization of their terminology and classification, they revised previous trichome classifications used in the genus. They also provide new trichome data by expanding taxon sampling and using different methodological approaches in plant anatomy to improve understanding of the structural patterns of the trichome types present in the genus.



How new plant cell walls change their mechanical properties after cell division

Biomechanics reveals cell wall age properties and how newly born cells can change their local shape and influence the growth of plant organs.



Light and temperature regulation of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis
Legris focuses on the environmental regulation of leaf development in the Arabidopsis plant, which is influenced majorly by light and temperature. The research contrasts the signaling mechanisms between leaves and seedlings and emphasises the recent discoveries as well as the most intriguing unresolved questions.



Mechanodetection of neighbor plants elicits adaptive leaf movements through calcium dynamics
Plants respond to touch by their neighbours through a process called hyponasty, where signal transduction different from light-induced responses is involved. The touch causes a spread of cytosolic calcium from the leaf tip to the petiole, and interrupting this calcium response or the absence of trichomes diminishes the hyponasty. This touch-induced leaf movement is adaptive and promotes growth in dense vegetation, as shown in Arabidopsis plant competition assays.



Auxin signaling pathway controls root hair formation for nitrogen uptake

Root hairs represent a low-cost strategy to enhance nutrient uptake because they can significantly increase the nutrient-acquiring surface of plant roots. While primary and lateral roots are stimulated to elongate when plants grow under mild nitrogen deficiency, the existence of such a foraging response for root hairs and its underlying regulatory mechanism remain elusive. Now, researchers have revealed a framework composed of specific molecular players meditating auxin synthesis, transport and signaling that triggers root hair elongation for nitrogen acquisition.



Molecular basis of methyl-salicylate-mediated plant airborne defence
Gong et al. reveal that methyl-salicylate (MeSA), salicylic acid-binding protein-2 (SABP2), the transcription factor NAC2 and salicylic acid-carboxylmethyltransferase-1 (SAMT1) form a signalling circuit to mediate AD against aphids and viruses. Airborne MeSA is perceived and converted into salicylic acid by SABP2 in neighbouring plants. Salicylic acid then causes a signal transduction cascade to activate the NAC2–SAMT1 module for MeSA biosynthesis to induce plant anti-aphid immunity and reduce virus transmission.



Cellular gibberellin dynamics govern indeterminate nodule development, morphology and function
Drapek determined the cellular location and function of bioactive gibberellin during nodule organogenesis using a genetically-encoded second generation gibberellin biosensor, GPS2. They found endogenous bioactive gibberellin accumulates locally at the site of nodule primordia, increasing dramatically in the cortical cell layers, persisting through cell divisions and maintaining accumulation in the mature nodule meristem.



Exploring the identity of individual plant cells in space and time
Using recently published studies in plant sciences, Oliva & Lista highlight how single-cell technologies have enabled a better comprehension of tissue organisation, cell fate dynamics in development or in response to various stimuli, as well as identifying key transcriptional regulators of cell identity.



Demystifying the role of plant x- and y-type thioredoxins

Researchers from Japan find that x- and y-type thioredoxins maintain the redox balance for photosynthesis under fluctuating light conditions.



Ectopic callose deposition into woody biomass modulates the nano-architecture of macrofibrils
Bourdon et al. report the engineering of wood structure through the introduction of callose, a polysaccharide novel to most secondary cell walls. Their multiscale analysis of genetically engineered poplar trees shows that callose deposition modulates cell wall porosity, water and lignin contents and increases the lignin–cellulose distance, ultimately resulting in substantially decreased biomass recalcitrance.



Chemical induction of hypocotyl rooting reveals extensive conservation of auxin signalling controlling lateral and adventitious root formation
Upon exposure to light, etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings form adventitious roots (AR) along the hypocotyl. While processes underlying lateral root formation are studied intensively, comparatively little is known about the molecular processes involved in the initiation of hypocotyl AR.



The Plant Ubiquitin–Proteasome System as a Target for Microbial Manipulation
In this review, Langin et al. describe how the ubiquitin–proteasome system regulates different immunity-related processes and how pathogens subvert this to promote disease.



Leaf physiological and morphological constraints of water-use efficiency in C3 plants
The development of crop varieties with improved water-use efficiency (WUE) will be critical for adapting agricultural strategies under predicted future climates. This review aims to summarize the most important leaf morpho-physiological constraints of WUE in C3 plants and identify gaps in knowledge.





Объявление: Годичное собрание «Экспериментальная биология растений и климатические вызовы»

Собрание пройдет в г. Екатеринбург, с 3 по 8 октября 2024 г.

Новости науки и практики // Февраль 2024

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