Общество физиологов растений России
03 Февраль, 2022

Новости науки и практики // Февраль 2022

Новости науки и практики // Февраль 2022

Plantmicrobiome interactions under a changing world: responses, consequences, and perspective

The plant-associated microbiome modulates the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on plant fitness. However, climate change induced change in composition and activities of plant microbiomes, can affect host functions. Trivedi et al. highlight recent advancements in our understanding of the impact of climate change (warming and drought) on plant-microbiome interactions and on their ecological functions from genome to ecosystem scales. They identify knowledge gaps, propose new concepts, and make recommendations for future research directions.



Chloroplast development in green plant tissues: the interplay between light, hormone, and transcriptional regulation

We use this conceptual framework to identify points of regulation that could be harnessed to modulate chloroplast abundance and increase photosynthetic efficiency of crops, and to highlight future avenues to overcome gaps in current knowledge.



Photosynthesis: Oxygen overload

A structure that helps algae photosynthesize when carbon dioxide levels are low may also play a role during hyperoxia conditions.



Modifying root-to-shoot ratio improves root water influxes in wheat under drought stress

Drought intensity as experienced by plants depends upon soil moisture status and atmospheric variables such as temperature, radiation, and air vapour pressure deficit. Although the role of shoot architecture with these edaphic and atmospheric factors is well characterized, the extent to which shoot and root dynamic interactions as a continuum are controlled by genotypic variation is less well known. Bacher et al. targeted these interactions using a wild emmer wheat introgression line (IL20) with a distinct drought-induced shift in the shoot-to-root ratio and its drought-sensitive recurrent parent Svevo. Using a gravimetric platform, they show that IL20 maintained higher root water influx and gas exchange under drought stress, which supported a greater growth.



Chloroplast development in green plant tissues: the interplay between light, hormone, and transcriptional regulation

In green tissues transcription factors, light signalling and hormone signalling form a complex network regulating the transcription of chloroplast- and photosynthesis-related genes to control the development and number of chloroplasts per cell. Cackett et al. use this conceptual framework to identify points of regulation that could be harnessed to modulate chloroplast abundance and increase photosynthetic efficiency of crops, and to highlight future avenues to overcome gaps in current knowledge.



Plants: RNA notes to self

Plants need an internal communication system to coordinate their development and growth. Within a plant, cells message each other with pieces of RNA. A professor discovered a protein that carries these RNA messages between cells. Tinkering with this communication system may help crops grow better and adapt faster to their environment.



Cation transporters in cell fate determination and plant adaptive responses to a low-oxygen environment

Huang et al. argue that low-oxygen-induced changes to cellular ion homeostasis and operation of membrane transporters may be critical for cell fate determination and formation of the lysigenous aerenchyma in plant roots and shaping the root architecture and adventitious root development in grasses. They summarize the existing evidence for a causal link between tissue-specific changes in oxygen concentration, intracellular Ca2+ and K+ homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species levels, and their role in conferring those two major traits enabling plant adaptation to a low-oxygen environment. They conclude that, for efficient operation, plants may rely on several complementary signalling pathway mechanisms that operate in concert and ‘fine-tune’ each other.



Activation of the plant mevalonate pathway by extracellular ATP

The mevalonate pathway plays a critical role in multiple cellular processes in both animals and plants. In plants, the products of this pathway impact growth and development, as well as the response to environmental stress. A forward genetic screen of Arabidopsis thaliana using Ca2+-imaging identified mevalonate kinase (MVK) as a critical component of plant purinergic signaling.



Developmental regulation of leaf venation patterns: monocot versus eudicots and the role of auxin

In this review Perico et al. first provide an overview of the diverse venation patterns that exist in land plants, providing an evolutionary perspective. They then focus on the developmental regulation of leaf venation patterns in angiosperms, comparing patterning in eudicots and monocots, and the role of auxin in each case.



Water stress resilient cereal crops: lessons from wild relatives

Toulotte et al. review (i) how water stress (drought and flooding) impacts crop performance and (ii) how identification of tolerance traits and mechanisms from wild relatives of the main cereal crops, i.e., rice, maize, wheat, and barley, can lead to improved survival and sustained yields in these crops under water stress conditions.



Auxin signaling: Research advances over the past 30 years

Yu et al. highlight advances in understanding auxin signaling, including auxin perception, rapid auxin responses, TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 and AUXIN SIGNALING F-boxes (TIR1/AFBs)-mediated transcriptional and non-transcriptional branches, and the epigenetic regulation of auxin signaling.



LeafNet: A Tool for Segmenting and Quantifying Stomata and Pavement Cells

Li et al. introduce LeafNet, a tool that automatically localizes stomata, segments pavement cells (to prepare them for quantification), and reports multiple morphological parameters for a variety of leaf epidermal images, especially bright-field microscopy images. LeafNet employs a hierarchical strategy to identify stomata using a deep convolutional network and then segments pavement cells on stomata-masked images using a region merging method.



Новый вид цианобактерий проливает свет на эволюцию кислородного фотосинтеза

Из растущего в Панаме мха выделен новый вид цианобактерий, названный Anthocerotibacter panamensis. На сегодняшний день у A. panamensis самое простое строение и самый простой фотосинтетический аппарат среди известных цианобактерий. Благодаря этому ученые смогли многое понять про историю появления кислородного фотосинтеза, преобразившего нашу планету. 



Morphological characterisation of trichomes

Can we use electron microscopy and statistical analyses to better classify the trichomes of the large plant genus Solanum?



Linking root exudation to belowground economic traits for resource acquisition

The concept of a root economics space (RES) is increasingly adopted to explore root trait variation and belowground resource-acquisition strategies. Much progress has been made on interactions of root morphology and mycorrhizal symbioses. However, root exudation, with a significant carbon © cost (c. 5–21% of total photosynthetically fixed C) to enhance resource acquisition, remains a missing link in this RES. Wen et al. argue that incorporating root exudation into the structure of RES is key to a holistic understanding of soil nutrient acquisition.



Root symbiosis is regulated through nutrient status of plants

Phosphorus is one of the most important nutrients for plants. Among other functions, it is needed to create substances for the plant's immune system, for the healthy development of seeds and for root growth. Researchers have now demonstrated how a root symbiosis with fungi is driven at the molecular level by the plant's phosphate status.



Gene regulation: How long do proteins bind?

Researchers show how a DNA-binding protein can search the entire genome for its target sequence without getting held up on the way. The result contradicts our current understanding of gene regulation - the genetic code affects how often the proteins bind, but not for how long.



Чем важнее ген, тем реже он мутирует

Белки ремонта ДНК с особым вниманием следят у растений за теми участками генома, которые особенно важны для выживания и размножения.



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