Общество физиологов растений России
01 апреля, 2019

Новости науки и практики // Апрель 2019

Новости науки и практики // Апрель 2019

Illuminating the genome

RNA-guided endonuclease -- in situ labelling, a new CRISPR/Cas9 based molecular visualisation method. Researchers have developed a new molecular visualisation method, RNA-guided endonuclease -- in situ labelling (RGEN-ISL) for the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated labelling of genomic sequences in nuclei and chromosomes.


Scientists construct artificial photosynthetic cells

The research team has constructed artificial cells using minimal components that are able to supply energy to drive gene expression inside a microcompartment, thus these artificial cells can produce energy that helps synthesize parts of the cells themselves.



Machine learning for measuring roots

MyRoot reduces the time required to measure one plate by approximately half. MyRoot also give the most precise root length measurements.



Crop yield in maize influenced by unexpected gene 'moonlighting'

Researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have identified a relationship between crop yield in the maize plant and specific genetic activity associated with one of the plant's metabolic pathways.



The role of transposable elements and DNA damage repair mechanisms in gene duplications and gene fusions in plant genomes

This review describes mechanisms that contribute to gene-size structural variation in plants, result in gene duplication and generation of new plant genes through gene fusion.



Ген «с нуля»

У риса нашли гены, которые явно появились без помощи других генов.



Calcium-activated 14-3-3 proteins as a molecular switch in salt stress tolerance

Results suggest that a salt-induced calcium signal is decoded by 14-3-3proteins and SOS3/SCaBP8 proteins, which selectively activate/inactivate the downstream protein kinases SOS2 and PKS5 to regulate Na+ homeostasis by coordinately mediating plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase activity.



Genes that evolve from scratch expand protein diversity

A new study challenges one of the classic assumptions about how new proteins evolve. The research shows that random, noncoding sections of DNA can quickly evolve to produce new proteins.



Lignin biosynthesis and its integration into metabolism

Researchers review the biosynthetic pathway to the lignin monomers, and how flux through the pathway is regulated.



Cell editors correct genetic errors

Almost all land plants employ an army of editors who correct errors in their genetic information. Researchers have now transferred parts of this machinery into a bacterium. Their results confirm a controversial thesis on the functioning of this widespread mechanism.



New Insights on Arabidopsis thaliana Root Adaption to Ammonium Nutrition by the Use of a Quantitative Proteomic Approach

Researchers performed a comparative proteomic study in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under exclusive ammonium or nitrate supply. Were identified and quantified 68 proteins with differential abundance between both  onditions. These proteins revealed new potential important players on root response to ammonium nutrition, such as H+-consuming metabolic pathways to regulate pH homeostasis and specific secondary metabolic pathways like brassinosteroid and glucosinolate biosynthetic pathways.



Nitrate nutrition improves energy efficiency under hypoxic stress

Scientists find that hypoxic stress under NO3 nutrition leads to increased nitrate reductase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, class 1 phytoglobin gene expression, and in turn ATP production.



Salinity decreases cadmium translocation in the halophyte Carpobrotus rossii

Scientists find that added salt decreased shoot Cd accumulation by decreasing Cd root-to-shoot translocation due to the rapid formation of low mobility Cd-S complexes without changing the concentrations of glutathione and phytochelatins.



Algal library lends insights into genes for photosynthesis

To identify genes involved in photosynthesis, researchers built a library containing thousands of single-celled algae, each with a different gene mutation. The library, which took nine years to construct, has already helped researchers identify 303 genes associated with photosynthesis including 21 newly discovered genes with high potential to provide new insights into this life-sustaining process.



Potential involvement of root auxins in drought tolerance by modulating nocturnal and daytime water use in wheat

Results indicate that accumulation of auxin in the root system reduces daytime and night-time water use and modulates plant hydraulic properties to enable the expression of water-saving traits that have been associated with enhanced yields under drought.



Engineering cellular function without living cells

Scientists have come up with a systematic method for studying and even predicting gene expression - without using cells. Using their innovative, quantitative approach, they measured important parameters governing gene regulation. This allowed them to design and construct a synthetic biological logic gate, which could one day be used to introduce new functions into cells.



Transplastomic Arabidopsis plants at last

An efficient route to the transformation of Arabidopsis plastids will allow the full power of molecular genetics to be brought to bear on the study of this key compartment.



Новости науки и практики // Май 2024

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Новости науки и практики // Апрель 2024

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